Our Research

A Creative Multidisciplinary Lab working on the development of lab-on-chip technologies to tackle the pathogenesis of secretory proteins in age related disorders.


Synapse on a Chip

Our synapse on a chip model helps dissecting the pathology of neurological diseases and aging.



Our lab aims to dissect the molecular mechanisms of exocytosis and how they alter in the disease.


Extracellular Vesicles

We aim to the engineer exosomes for diagnostics and targeted drug/gene delivery.


Organ on a Chip

Our goal of in vitro microfabricated organs-on-a-chip to replace animal models.

The Ramakrishnan Lab connects basic research questions in exocytosis, exosomes, and SNARE proteins for biomedical applications.!

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Since We Started

Our group has trained several exceptional high school, undergraduates, and postdoctoral associates. Our undergraduate researchers have outstanding track record.




4Ramakrishnan S, Weerakkody J, Gunasekara R, Thoduvayil S, Kyriakides T “Photosensitive Nanoprobes for Size-Specific Isolation of Synthetic and Extracellular Vesicle Subpopulations” US Patent, 2024
3Ramakrishnan S, Kalyanasundaram V, Bera M “Plasma Membrane on a Chip” US Patent (62614336), 2023
2Ramakrishnan S, Gergely C “Porous silicon ELISA for point-of-care testing” US Patent (62614336), 2017
1Ramakrishnan S, Gergely C “Organic Si photodiode for far infrared detection” US (62612890), 2017


27Bera M, Kalyana Sundaram V, Coleman J, Pincet F, Ramakrishnan S*, “Long-Lasting Planar Asymmetric Suspended Membranes for Investigating Protein Dynamics and Membrane Fusion”
Nature Protocol Invited, (Accepted)
26Weerakkody J, Tseng T, Topper M, Thoduvayil S, Radhakrishnan A, Pincet F, Kyriakides T, Gunasekara R, Ramakrishnan S*, “Photosensitive Nanoprobes for Rapid High Purity Isolation and Size-Specific Enrichment of Synthetic and Extracellular Vesicle Subpopulations,
Advanced Functional Materials, 2024
25Mion D, Bunel L, Ramakrishnan S, Heo P, Pincet F,“Biomimetic membrane in a microfluidic chip for the electrical and optical monitoring of biological reactions”,
Nature protocol, (In Review)
24Bera M, Radhakrishnan A, Coleman J, Kalyana Sundaram V, Ramakrishnan S, Pincet F, Rothman JE, Synaptophysin Chaperones the Assembly of 12 SNAREpins under each Ready-Release Vesicle,
PNAS, 2023.
23Panda A, Giska F, Duncan A, Welch A, Brown C, McAllister A, Parameswaran H, Coleman J,Ramakrishnan S, Guan L, Krishnakumar S, Sansom M, Rothman JE, Gupta K, “Lipid vesicle native mass spectrometry for direct determination of oligomeric organization of integral membrane proteins and lipids from bilayer”,
Nature Methods, 2023 (Cover Article)
22Thoduvayil S, Weerakkody J.S., Kalyana Sundaram V, Topper M, Bera M, Coleman J, Li X, Mariappan M, Ramakrishnan S*, Rapid Quantification of First and Second Phase Insulin Secretion Dynamics using an In vitro Platform for Improving Insulin Therapy,
Cell Calcium, 2023.
21Kalyana Sundaram V, Chatterjee A, Bera M, Grushin K, Panda A, Li F, Coleman J, Lee S, Ramakrishnan S, Ernst , A.M., Gupta K, J.E. Rothman JE, Krishnakumar SS, Roles for diacylglycerol in synaptic vesicle priming and release revealed by complete reconstitution of core protein machinery,
PNAS, 2023.
20Kalyana Sundaram V, Bera M, Coleman J, Weerakkody J, Krishnakumar SS, Ramakrishnan S* “Native Planar Asymmetric Suspended Membrane for Single-Molecule Investigations: Plasma Membrane on a Chip”.
Small, 2022 (Cover Article, Highlighted in Advanced Science News).
19Ramakrishnan S*, Weerakkody J. “Suspended Lipid Bilayer: A Versatile Platform for Nextgen Drug Discovery and Biomedical Applications”.
Accounts of Materials Research, 2022 (Cover Article, Invited).
18 Bera M, Ramakrishnan S, Coleman J, Rothman JE, and Krishnakumar SS. “Molecular Determinants of Complexin Clamping and Activation Function”.
Elife, 2022.
17 Li F, Kalyana Sundaram V, Gatta AT, Coleman J, Ramakrishnan S, Krishnakumar SS, Pincet F, Rothman JE, “Vesicle capture by discrete self-assembled clusters of membrane-bound Munc13-1”,
FEBS Lett., 2021.
16 Ramakrishnan S, Bera M, Coleman J, Rothman JE, and Krishnakumar SS. “Synergistic Roles of Synaptotagmin-1 and Complexin in Calcium Regulated Neuronal Exocytosis.”
Elife, 2020..
15 Ramakrishnan S, Bera M, Coleman J, Krishnakumar SS, Pincet F, and Rothman JE. “Synaptotagmin oligomers are necessary and can be sufficient to form a Ca2+‐sensitive fusion clamp.”
FEBS Lett., 2019..
14 Heo P, Ramakrishnan S, Coleman J, Rothman J, Fleury JB, Pincet F. “Highly Reproducible Physiological Asymmetric Membrane with Freely Diffusing Embedded Proteins in a 3D‐Printed Microfluidic Setup.”
Small, 2019. .
13 Coleman J, Jouannot O,# Ramakrishnan S,# Zanetti N, Wang J, Salpietro V, Houlden H, Rothman J, Krishnakumar S. “PRRT2 Regulates Synaptic Fusion by Directly Moderating SNARE Complex Assembly.”
Cell Reports, 2018. .
12 Ramakrishnan S,# Gohlke A,# Li F, Coleman J, Xu W, Rothman J, Pincet F. “High throughput single vesicle fusion using free-standing membranes and automated analysis.”
Langmuir, 2018 .
11 Ramakrishnan S, Martin M, Cloitre T, Agarwal V, Cusinier F, Gergely C. “Porous silicon microcavities redefine colorimetric ELISA sensitivity for ultrasensitive detection of autoimmune antibodies.”
Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 2018. .
10 Papa Z, Ramakrishnan S, Martin M, Cloitre T, Zimayi L, Toth Z, Gergely C, Budai J. “Ellipsometric behavior of patterned layers – depolarization and quasi absorption.”
Applied Surface Science, 2017. .
9 Ramakrishnan S,* Zhu J, Gergely C. “Organic-Inorganic Interface simulations for new material discoveries.”
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Computational Molecular Science, 7(1), 2017. Impact: Invited (*Corresponding Author); (Cover Article ; Highlighted in Advanced Science News ) .
8 Papa Z,# Ramakrishnan S,# Martin M, Marquez J, Zimanyi L, Toth Z, Gergely C. “Interactions at the silicon-peptide surfaces – Evidence of peptide multilayer assembly.”
Langmuir, 2016. .
7 Ramakrishnan S, Jebors S, Martin M, Cloitre T, Agarwal V, Mehdi A, Martinez J, Subra G, Gergely C. “Engineered adhesion peptides for improved silicon adsorption.”
Langmuir, 2015. .
6 Ramakrishnan S, Martin M, Cloitre T, Firlej L, Gergely C. “Design rules for metal binding biomolecules: Understanding of amino acid adsorption on platinum crystallographic facets by density functional theoretical calculations.”
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 2015. .
5 Ramakrishnan S, Martin M, Cloitre T, Firlej L, Gergely C. “Molecular Mechanism of Selective Binding of Peptides to Silicon Surface.”
J. Chem. Inf. Model., 2014. .
4Ramakrishnan S, Martin M, Cloitre T, Firlej L, Cuisinier FJ, Gergely C. “Insights on the facet specific adsorption of amino acids and peptides towards platinum.”
J. Chem. Inf. Model., 2013. .
3Ramakrishnan S, Estephan E, Martin M, Cloitre T & Gergely C. “Probing the mechanism of material specific peptides for optical sensors.” Proc.SPIE 8765,
Bio-MEMS and Medical Microdevices, 2013. .
2Salehi H, Middendorp E, Panayotov I, Collart Dutilleul PY, Vegh AG, Ramakrishnan S, Gergely C, Cuisinier F. “Confocal Raman data analysis enables identifying apoptosis of MCF-7 cells caused by anticancer drug paclitaxel.”
Journal of Biomedical Optics, 2013. .
1Salehi H, Middendorp E, Végh AG, Ramakrishnan S, Gergely C, Cuisinier FJG. “Detection of apoptosis caused by anticancer drug paclitaxel in MCF-7 cells by confocal Raman microscopy.”
Proc.SPIE, 2013. .

We are always on the lookout for enthusiastic, talented undergrad students, PhD students, and postdocs, from a wide range of backgrounds, including engineering, protein biochemistry, molecular and cell biology, physics, biophysics, and computer science Our research page provides additional insight into the various projects undertaken in our lab. If the sphere of lab-on-chip technologies, specifically dealing with neurons and membranes, stirs your enthusiasm, feel free to send us an email.!


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Our Team !


Contact Us

If you have any specific questions feel free to contact us.

  • Nanobiology Institute,
    Yale West Campus,
    West Haven,
    CT, 06516
  • +1 203 785 7102

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